Ethnic and cultural diversity presupposes different spaces of ideologies, cosmologies and cultures. Africa as a continent with tons of several distinct cultures would implicate the desire for difference  in world views and spatial thoughts or beliefs which would need to be reflected in African literature. Therefore, African writers had a large array of social conundrums and cultural thoughts to unravel and display. They wrote on isssues like partriarchy and sexism, post-colonialism, neo-colonialism, colonialism, religion and African cosmology.

1. Chinua Achebe
A prolific writer known for his sharp-wits and epigrammatic expressions. He plays a major role as a frontier of the first generation of African fiction. His most famous work "Things fall Apart" (1958), appeared to be the trump card that accomplished this feat and dealt a blow to the critical prejudice of white scholars on Africa. He is also a critic. He's particularly more remembered for his biting criticism on Joseph Conrad's "Heart of darkness". His other writes include, "Arrow of god", "Anthills of the Savannah" among others.

2. Ngugi wa Thiong’o
One of Africa's most influential and respected writer, Ngugi wa writes pungently on the schemes, mechanics and effects of postcolonial. His writing career began with novels written in the English language. They dwelt on the subjects like the clash between colonialism and African cultures, the themes of individual communities.  Wa Thiong’o staged a play which bothered on controversial political isssues. He was imprisoned without trial for this. The Ngugi that was left after his release transformed. He purposed his written works only in his native Gikuyi and Swahili. His  idea was to preach language as cathartic -  language as a powerful tool for liberating the nous  of African readers and writers and freeing their hearts and culture from the fangs of colonialism. 1964 "Weep Not, Child" 1967 "A Grain of Wheat" and his great play-text "I will marry when I want" are soe of his notable works. He owns some of the famous literature awards, among which are the Nonino International Prize for Literature (2001), and Man Booker International Prize (2009)

3. Wole Soyinka
Akinwande Oluwole Babatunde Soyinka was awarded  Nobel Prize in Literature, in 1986.He is a playwright, poet, and essayist. Wole Soyinka decided to pick a sit as an active critical contributor in the political history of Nigeria and the independence of the country. Soyinka receieved an invite to London for the elegance and creative power of some of his early plays - they attracted the interest of London's Royal Court Theatre representatives. His play "The Invention" was produced by the Royal Court Theatre in 1957, at which time he also published his poems "The Immigrant" and "My Next Door Neighbour." The first full-length play produced on television in Nigerian, “My Father’s Burden” was written by Wole Soyinka after returning to Nigeria. This play also received popular acclaim and was awarded significantly.

4. Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie
A new generation of African writers storms the literary world inNigeria and overseas; no doeubt, Chimamanda is sits at the hightable of this new generation. Adichie was Born in Nigeria in 1977. Her works have a centrifugal attention towards the characters and the backgrouds of her native homeland - Nigeria - and how the issues of politics and social events affect the narrative. One of her most notable work is Her 2003 novel, "Purple Hibiscus". it is a coming-of-age novel that describes the life of a girl, Kambili, adn the experiences of her family at the time of the military coup in Nigeria. Her recent work, 2013, "Americanah" paints out  clear images og thr life of Nigerian immigrants and their relations with America and the westerh world. Among the numerous awards adn commendation Adichie has gotten, the Orange Prize and Booker Prize are notable ones.

5. Amos Tutuola
He is one of the earliest Nigerian and African writers to be recognized and appreciated. Some scolars are of the position that he undoubtedly played  a major role in the first generation of african fiction. Born in Abeokuta on 20 June 1920, died on 8 June 1997, his writing career started in 1946. He gained international fame after the publication of his first three books. Published in 1952 in London and Paris, his most famous novels  are “His Dead Palm-Wine Tapster in the Deads' Town” and “The Palm-Wine Drinkard.” Amos Tutuola novels were translated in more than 10 languages and published around the world.

6. Ayi Kwei Armah
Political desolation and social conundrums are the major balls of Ayi Kwei Armah’s writing game. His novels are known for the intensity in which they describe these issues in her native Ghana. Armah is greatly influenced by French existential philosophers, such as Jean Paul Sartre and Albert Camus. This is why most of his themes dwell on despair, disillusionment and irrationality. for instance, his 1968 famous work, "The Beautyful Ones Are Not Yet Born", we see a centripetal portrait of the quest for self-identity and nationalist identity -  an unnamed protagonist tries to know and discover his self and his country in the wake of post-independence.

7. Meshack Asare
Children literature at times is what some writing enthusiasts might undermine. However, it is undoubtably a stable genre that has its lores and beauties. we could all say that J.K Rowling's "Harry potter" is proof of this. Asare is a Ghanian author who is powerful in this genre. He was born in Ghana, now, he lives in Degenfeld, Germany. Asare was awarded by the prestigious international award NSK Neustadt Prize for Children's Literature, On 24 October 2014. He was the first African writer to win this award. Some of his popular works are 2002,  "Noma's Sand: A Tale from Lesotho" and 1997 "Sosu's Call" among others.

8. Mariama Bâ
Feminism and gender inequality are of course pertinent issues in African literature. A Senegalese born in Darka, Mariama is a woman author who has gained powerful influence due to her literary contentions in these issues. She addresses these issues of gender inequality in her native Senegal and wider Africa. Often times, most female writers who set out to vanquish sexism or feminism her themeselves individuals who have been victims of partriarchal subjugation.Her bitterness at the weakening influence of patriarchal structures over her life is what finds footing in the literature of mariama Bâ: her 1981 novel, "So Long A Letter" leaves a reark of the powerlessness of the African woman amidst issues of marriage and her society.

9. Tsitsi Dangarembga
1988 “Nervous Conditions”, was her first book. BBC named it  as "one of the top 100 books that have changed the world." She was born, 4 February 1959 in Bulawayo, Zimbabwe.  Tsitsi studied psychology in Zimbabwe. This accounts for the attention given to the cognition and emotional pangs of her characters. Her first short story called "The Letter" was published in 1985. "Nervous conditions" which she wrote at age 25 is not only considered as one of the greatest African novels, it also won a number of awards.." Other notable works of the author are: 1993 "Neria" and 1996 "Everyone's Child" amongst others.

10. Naguib Mahfouz
An Egyptian writer who knew and mastered the mechanics of writing,  Mahfouz is an Egyptian writer who was awarded Nobel Prize for Literature in 1988. He is the author of 34 novels and has a large number of other notable works of literature attached to his name. His most notable work is "The Cairo Trilogy" which is a combination of three novels: "Palace Walk," "Palace of Desire," "Sugar Street." The trilogy is a narrative of three generations of Cairene patriarch’s family in the period from 1919 to 1944.

11. Léopold Sédar Senghor
Senghor might be remembered more for his political theories - negritude - and political life. Even so, it would be  a bit careless to ignore his powerful influence in literature. Born in 1906, he was a Senegalese poet, cultural theorist, politician, and the first president of Senegal. Senghor's poetry was widely appraised and appreciated. In 1978,  he was honoured by Prix Mondial Cino Del Duca. In 1948 author published his most famous book of poetry in the French language that was called "Anthologie de la nouvelle poésie nègre et malgache." 

12. Thomas Mokopu Mofolo
Mofolo wrote in Sesotho language. His first novel was written in 1907, “The Traveler of the East”. Mofolo is recognized as "the greatest Basotho author". Published in many countries of the world, his most famous work is 1925 "Chaka".  It was an epic narrative of the tragedy  a Zulu conqueror. Missionaries were against the publication of the book, due to its strong contents of paganism and the cunveiiled descriptions of the pre-chriatian life of the locals.

13. Nuruddin Farah
He is a prolific writer born in Somalia in 1945. Farah is a writer of numerous plays, novels and short stories, noted for his artistic writing curvature and the experiences of his native country. His 1970 "From a Crooked Rib" is pulled out of  a Smalian proverb: “God created woman from a crooked rib, and anyone who trieth to straighten it, breaketh it”. This is his first novel.  He employs the narrative of a young woman cornered in an unhappy marriage to give a critical coment on the harsh situations of women in Somalian society. His other writes dwell on themes of war, politics and similar situations as this.

14. Aminatta Forna
"The Devil That Danced on Water" (2003) is a memoir she wrote that helped draw attention. She was born in Glasgow but raised in Sierra Leon. her 2003 memoir is  an intrepid  account of the experiences of her family living in war-devastated Sierra Leone, and in particular, her father’s sad fate as a political dissenter. Forna has written ither works asides this with each of them besting critical remarks. One of such writes is 2010 "The Memory of Love"  which was nominated for the Orange Prize for Fiction, due to the elegant way it braws a narrative of love and loss within the wider canvas of the desolation of the Sierre Leone civil war.

15. Nadine Gordimer
Gordimer is a potent writer of the apartheid era. Her works powerfully explore areas of social, moral, and racial issues in the apartheid  South African society. Her olympian manner of portraying a society fused with racism won her a noble prize ibn literature. "Burger’s Daughter" is one of her famous works. It describes  the struggles of a group of anti-apartheid activists. It was claimed to be read in secret by Nelson Mandela during his time on Robben Island. As it was a trend in the 20th century Afrjcan society,  Gordimer’s most famous and controversial works were banned from South Africa on the reason that they spoke out against governmental edifices. 

16. Alain Mabanckou
He is a Congolese writer whose works are written primarily in French. His worksa are noted for their nipping  wits and satires,  leaving the reader with a clear-cut description  and imagination of Africa and African immigrants in France. The characters are the heart and soul of his works. For instance, his book "Broken Glass", which focuses on the interactions  a former Congolese teacher with the locals in the bar he patronizes. His novel "Black Bazar", is another example. It details the experiences of various African immigrants in an Afro-Cuban bar in Paris.

17. Ben Okri
Ben Okri is the sort we would categorize as having a split childhood. His early days  were shared between his stay in England and times in his native Nigeria. This early experiences intoned into his future writing: his first, appraised novels 1980 "Flowers and Shadows" and 1981 "The Landscapes Within"  were irror images on the desolation of the Nigerian civil war which Okri himself experienced. Novels he wrote later did not fall short of appraisals too: His 1991 "The Famished Road" is a famous and widley appreciated work that givesa a narrayive of a spirit child, Azaro. It won the Booker Prize, fluxing in a concerted way the world of realis and spiritism.

Sources : and culturetrip